In July 1939 the RLM issued a specification for a new medium bomber. It was to have a maximum speed of 600 km/h (373 mph) and be able to carry a bomb load of 4000 kg (8820 lbs) to any part of Britain from bases in France or Norway. Furthermore, the new bomber was to have a pressurized crew compartment, remote control armament and was to utilize two of the new 2500 horsepower class of engines then being developed (Jumo 222 or Daimler Benz DB 604). This was the "Bomber B" program, which Arado, Dornier, Focke-Wulf and Junkers participated in. The Arado Ar E.340 was eliminated, the Dornier Do 317 was put on a low-priority development contract; and the Junkers Ju 288 and Focke-Wulf Fw 191 were chosen for full development.
          Dipl. Ing E. Kösel, who also worked on the Fw 189 reconnaissance plane, led the design team for the Fw 191. Overall, the Fw 191 was a clean, all metal aircraft that featured a shoulder mounted wing. Two 24 cylinder Jumo 222 engines (which showed more promise than the DB 604 engines) were mounted in nacelles on the wings. An interesting feature was the inclusion of the Multhopp-Klappe, an ingenious form of combined landing flap and dive brake, which was developed by Hans Multhopp. The entire fuel supply was carried in five tanks located above the internal bomb bay, and in two tanks in the wing between the engine nacelles and fuselage. The tail section was of a twin fins and rudders design, with the tailplane having a small amount of dihedral. The main landing gear retracted to the rear and rotated 90 degrees to lie flat in each engine nacelle. Also, the tailwheel retracted forwards into the fuselage. A crew of four sat in the pressurized cockpit, and a large Plexiglas dome was provided for the navigator; also the radio operator could use this dome to aim the remote controlled rear guns. Armament was to consist of a remote controlled chin turret (two MG 81 7.9mm machine guns), a similar turret in the rear of each engine nacelle, an upper and lower turret featuring a single MG 151/20 20mm cannon and two MG 131 13mm machine guns.
          Problems arose almost immediately when the Jumo 222 engines were not ready in time for the first flight tests, so a pair of 1600 horsepower BMW 801MA radial engines were fitted. This made the FW 191 V1 seriously underpowered. Another problem arose with the RLM's insistence that all systems that would normally be hydraulic or mechanically activated should be operated by electric motors. The installation of so many electric motors and wiring led to the nickname for the Fw 191 of "Das fliegende Kraftwerk" (the flying powerstation)! This also had the detrimental effect of adding even more weight to the overburdened airframe, plus there was also the danger of a single enemy bullet putting every system out of action if the generator was hit.
          Dipl. Ing Melhorn took the Fw 191 V1 on its maiden flight early in 1942, with immediate problems arising from the lower rated engines not providing enough power, as was anticipated. One surprising problem that was encountered were the Multhopp-Klappe, which presented severe flutter problems when extended, and pointed to the need for a redesign. At this point, only dummy gun installations were fitted and no bomb load was carried. After completing ten test flights, the Fw 191 V1 was joined by the similar V2 , but only a total of ten hours of test flight time was logged.
          At this point, the RLM allowed the redesign and removal of the electric motors (to be replaced by the standard hydraulics), so the Fw 191 V3, V4 and V5 were abandoned. The Fw 191 V6 was then modified to the new design, and also a pair of specially prepared Jumo 222 engines were fitted that developed 2200 horsepower for takeoff. The first flight of the new Fw 191 took place in December 1942 with Flugkapitän Hans Sander at the controls. Although the V6 flew better, the Jumo 222 were still not producing their design power, and the whole Jumo 222 development prospect was looking bad due to the shortage of special metals for it. The Fw 191 V6 was to have been the prototype for the Fw 191A series
          Since the Jumo 222 engines were having a lot of teething problems, and the Daimler Benz DB 604 had already been abandoned, a new proposal was put forth for the Fw 191B series. The V7 through V12 machines were abandoned in favor of using the Fw 191 V13 to install a pair of Daimler Benz DB 606 or 610 engines, which were basically coupled pairs of either DB 601 or 605 12 cylinder engines. Their lower power-to-weight ratio, however, meant that the armament and payload would have to be reduced. It had already been decided to delete the engine nacelle gun turrets, and to make the rest manually operated. Five more prototypes were planned with the new engine arrangement, V14 through V18, but none were ever built.
          One final attempt was made to save the Fw 191 program, this time the Fw 191C was proposed as a four engined aircraft, using either the 1340 horsepower Jumo 211F, the 1300 horsepower DB 601E, the 1475 horsepower DB 605A or the 1475 horsepower DB 628 engines. Also, the cabin would be unpressurized and the guns manually operated; a rear step in the bottom of the deepened fuselage being provided for the gunner.
          Unfortunately, at this time, the whole "Bomber B" program had been canceled, due mainly to no engines of the 2500 horsepower class being available, which was one of the primary requirements in the "Bomber B" program.  Although the Fw 191 will be remembered as a failure, the air frame and overall design eventually proved themselves to be sound, only the underpowered engines and insistence on electric motors to operate all the systems eventually dooming the aircraft. All in all, there were only three Fw 191s ever built (V1, V2 and V6), and no examples of the Fw 191B or C ever advanced past the design stage.
Fw 191 w/Jumo 222 - Dimensions*
Span Length Height Wing Area Landing Gear Track Width
25 m 
18.45 m 
60' 6"
4.8 m 
15' 9"
70.5 m² 
758.86 ft²
6.82 m 
22' 5"
Fw 191 w/Jumo 222 - Weights*
Empty Weight
Crew Ammunition Fuel Lubricants Bombs/Overload Flying Weight Wing Loading
11970 kg 
26389 lbs
360 kg 
794 lbs
505 kg 
1113 lbs
4390 kg 
9678 lbs
350 kg 
772 lbs
2000 kg / 4200 kg 
4409 lbs / 9259 lbs
19575 kg 
43155 lbs
278 kg/m² 
56.87 lbs/ft²
Fw 191 w/Jumo 222 - Performances*
Max. speed/Altitude Range Ceiling Climb Rate Takeoff Distance Landing Speed
495 km/h / 0 km 
308 mph / 0' 
540 km/h / 2 km 
336 mph / 6562' 
570 km/h / 4 km 
354 mph / 13124' 
620 km/h / 6.35 km 
385 mph / 20834' 
605 km/h / 8 km 
376 mph / 26248'
3600 km 
2237 miles
9700 m 
6.1 m/sec 
20 ft/sec
990 m 
135 km/h 
84 mph
* Note: all dimension, weight and performance data was taken diretcly from the original Focke-Wulf Fw 191 w/Jumo 222 factory documents. All other published sources I could find were slightly different.

Focke-Wulf Fw 191 Models
Manufacturer Scale Material Notes
Airmodel   #051 1/72 Vacuform w/resin details One of the nicer Airmodel vac kits, 
good instruction sheets
Planet   #038 1/72 Resin w/decals Good later Planet Models release, 
hollow fuselage halves

A good front view of the FW 191V1 with BMW 801MA radial engines.
Note the crew access ladder and open bomb bay doors.


Below: two more views showing off the lines of the Fw 191

Left: a close up view of the rear firing guns on the Fw 191 V1 
Right: detail of the Multhopp-Klappe, a combination landing flap and dive brake

 Three photos showing the nose and canopy of the Fw 191 V1



    A copy of the original Focke-Wulf Fw 191 factory drawing showing the bomb loading table....


A copy of the original Focke-Wulf factory drawing showing the various bomb loads that the Focke-Wulf Fw 191 could carry...

Above image from Geheimprojekte der Luftwaffe Band II: Strategische Bomber 1935-1945

    Focke-Wulf Fw 191 Cockpit Instrumentation
Note: If anyone can translate these instrument names better, I would
appreciate the help. Please send email to

                                          Figure B     Emergency Compass


Figure C

Figure D

Figure A

Backup DF

Figure E

Figure A
Figure B
Figure C
1) Fahrtmesser 
    Airspeed Indicator 
    Turn Indicator 
3) Variometer
    Rate of Climb Indicator 
4) Schauzeichen für Staurohrheizung 
    Pitot Heat Temperature Indicator
5) Warnlampe für Kabinendruck 
    Cabin Pressure Warning Lamp 
6) Funknavigation 
    Radio Navigation 
7) Horizont 
    Artificial Horizon 
8) Fein - u. Grobhöhenmesser 
    Fine and Course Altimeter 
9) Führer - Tochterkompaß 
    Main - Slave Compass
1) Kontact - Höhenmesser 
    Contact - Altimeter 
2) Verzögerrungsschalter 
    Time Delay Switch 
3) Anzeigegerät für Fahrwerk und Landeklappen 
     Indicator for Landing Gear and Landing Flaps 
4) Schalter für Fahrwerk und Landeklappen 
    Switch for Landing Gear and Landing Flaps 
5) Kommandoschalter (Sturzflugschalter) 
    Command switch (dive switch) 
6) Fahrtmesser f. 3 Achsensteuerung 
    Airspeed Indicator for 3 axis Control 
7) Horizonttochter f. 3 Achsensteuerung 
    Slave Attitude for 3 axis Control
1) Schalter für Kreiselstützung 
    Gyro Control switches 
2) S - Kompaß Ueberwachung 
    Compass Indicator 
3) Kurs - Schalter 
    Longitudinal axis Control 
4) Quer - Schalter 
    Lateral axis Control 
5) Höhen - Schalter 
    Vertical axis Control 
6) Anzeigegerät für Seitentrimmung
    Indicator for Rudder Trim 
7) Anzeigegerät für Quertrimmung 
    Indicator for Aileron Trim
8) Anzeigegerät für Höhentrimmung 
    Indicator for Elevator  Trim 
9) Schalter für Seitentrimmung 
    Rudder Trim Switch
10) Schalter für Quertrimmung 
    Aileron Trim Switch
11) Scheinwerferschalter 
      Landing Light Switch 
12) Hauptschalter für 3 Achsensteuerung
     Main Switch for 3 axis Control
13) Bediengerät für Fu G XXV 
    Control Panel for Fu G XXV
14) ADb 11 
15) Außenlufttemperatur 
    Outside Air Temperature
16) Kabinentemperatur 
      Cockpit Temperature 
17) Ablegekasten 
      Storage Box
Figure D
Figure E
1) O² Druckmesser 
    O² Pressure Gauge 
2) O² Wächter 
    O2 Flowmeter 
3) Knopf für Membranlunge 
    Diaphram Knob 
4) Feststellhebel 
    Arresting Lever
5) Gashobel 
    Gas Lever 
6) Luftschraubenverstellung 
    Propeller Pitch Control 
7) Verstellschrauben - Segelstellung 
    Propeller Feathering Control 
8) Zündschalter 
    Ignition Switch 
9) Netzausschalter
    Master Switch - Battery
10) Behälterschaltung 
     Fuel Tank Selector 
11) Schnellablaß 
      Fuel Jettison Switch 
12) Kabinenheizung 
      Cabin Heating 
13) Flossenenteisung 
      Fin De-icer 
14) Enteisung 
15) Anlaßschalter 
       Starter Switch 
9) Netzausschalter 
    Circuit Breakers 
10) Behälterschaltung 
     Fuel Tank Selector 
11) Schnellablaß 
      Fuel Jettison Switch 
12) Kabinenheizung 
      Cabin Heating 
13) Floßenenteisung 
      Fin De-icer 
14) Enteisung 
15) Anlaßschalter 
       Starter Switch
1) RAB 14 d 
2) ADb 13 
3) ZSK 244 
4) Höhe über Ziel 
    Altitude Over Target 
5) Eigengeschwindigk. 
    True Airspeed 
6) Membranlunge 
7) Windkompaß 
     Wind Direction 
8) Umschalter 
     Change Over Switch 
9) O² Wächter 
     O²  Flowmeter 
10) O² Druckmesser 
      O² Pressure Guage 
11) Gashebel 
      Gas Lever 
12) 4fach - Gerät 
13) Doppel - Ladedruck - messer 
      Twin Manifold Indicator 
14) Umschalter 
      Select Switch 
15) Doppel - Drehzahl - messer 
      Overrotate Indicator 
16) Umschalter 
      Select Switch 
17) Restwarnung 
      Reserve Fuel Caution 
18) Kraftstoffvorrat 
      Fuel Quantity 
19) Umschalter 
      Select Switch 
20) Schmiwrstoffvorrat 
     Coolant Quantity 
21) Temperaturanzeiger für Nasenenteisung 
      Temperature Indicator for Airfoil De-Icer
22) Stellungsanzeiger für Flossenenteisung
     Position Indicator for Fin De-Icer 
23) Stellungsanzeiger für Erhitzer 
     Heater Position Indicator 
24) Stellungsanzeiger für Erhitzer 
     Heater Position Indicator 
25) Schalter für Lader 
      Supercharger Control Switch
26) Kabinendruck (Grobhöhenmesser) 
     Cabin Pressure 
27) Schalter für Lader 
      Supercharger Control Switch 
28) Sanitätspack 
      First Aid Kit 
29) Kennlampe für Kärchergerät 
      Pilot Lamp for